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Gary provides glue logic for bus control and houses supporting functions for the floppy disk drive. It integrates many functions built discretely in the earlier Amiga in order to reduce costs. Gayle[ edit ] Gayle replaced Gary in the A and A Akiko is responsible for implementing system glue logic that in previous Amiga models were jetoane de biți in the discrete chips Budgie, Gayle and the two CIAs.
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Additionally, the Akiko chip is able to perform simple ' chunky ' to ' planar ' graphics conversion in hardware. The Amiga's native display is a planar display which is simple and efficient to manipulate for routines like scrolling. However, chunky displays are faster and more jetoane de biți for 3D graphics manipulation.
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Akiko allows this conversion to be performed in hardware instead of relying on software conversion which would cause more overhead. The conversion works by writing 32 8-bit chunky pixels to Akiko's registers and reading back eight bit words of converted planar data which can then be copied to the display buffer.
Bridgette[ edit ] Bridgette is an integrated bus buffer in the A series. It replaces six 74Fs and four 74Fs chips used in the original A design. It provides DMA support, but has a bug that might lead to a bus lockup.
Kickstart[ edit ] A Kickstart 3. It contains the largest part of the operating system.
History[ edit ] A wide range of different local area network technologies were developed in the early s, of which one, the Cambridge Ringhad demonstrated the potential of a token passing ring topologyand many teams worldwide began working on their own implementations. It used a convenient star-wired physical topology and ran over jetoane de biți twisted-pair cabling. Token Ring does not inherently support this feature and requires additional software and hardware to operate on a direct cable connection setup.
Kickstart 1. The CIA chips were also used in some other Commodore devices.
Amber[ edit ] Amber was used in the A T jetoane de biți on the A flicker fixer expansion for the A Amber buffers alternate video fields in three K×4 field memory chips OKI MSM to convert interlaced output to progressive format 'weaving' at 31 kHz, twice the normal scan frequency.
Amber can accurately sample Lores and Hires modes but drops every other horizontal pixel in SuperHires 35 ns pixels mode for simplicity, it always runs in Hires mode.
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Non 15 kHz modes are automatically bypassed to the monitor without buffering or changing frequencies. Amber was also designed to work without expensive field memory as a simple scan doublerbut has not been marketed that way.
It also generates a monochrome composite video signal and combined sync. The A uses discrete resistor arrays and amplification.